Sunday, March 17, 2013

Disruptive Innovations

Disruptive Innovations in a Turbulent Academic Environment
Who's Doing What???
Last updated: Thursday 12/12/13 ... Work in Progress 

The following table provides a compact framework for tracking the innovations in higher education that have received the most coverage/buzz in the academic and national media during the last few years.

The rows of the table list the innovations ... plus brief descriptions ... plus links to the Web pages of a few high profile exemplar institutions that have adopted the innovations ... plus links to references published by reliable media that provide useful additional information about the innovations and their exemplars.

The table is a "work in progress" ==> readers are invited to use the "Comments" form at the bottom of the page to share innovations, exemplars, and references they think will make the table more useful ... :-)
References -- News articles, reports
A. Course Delivery

1. Blended Courses
Courses are at least 30 percent on the Web …  more effective for most students than face-to-face or online courses

2. Flipped Courses
Flippped course = Particular kind of blended course = Presentations (videos, PowerPoints, podcasts, text, etc) on the Web + classes devoted to Q&A, demos, discussions, and other activities that enhance students’ understanding of the materials presented on the Web
… Strategy for transition from face-to-face to online courses
 … MOOCs (below) can serve as the online components of flipped courses
 -- “Top Ed-Tech Trends of 2012: The Flipped Classroom” (Audrey Watters, Inside Higher Ed, 12/17/12)
-- “
Impact of Screencast Technology: Connecting the Perception of Usefulness and the Reality of Performance” (K.R. Green, T. Pinder-Grover, J.M. Millunchick) … some data that supports the belief that videos really help students learn math

3. Online Courses
Courses that are at least 80 percent on the Web/Internet

 -- “Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States” (Babson Survey Group, 2012) … annual survey estimates number of U.S. online courses, enrollments, etc

4. MOOCs -- massive open online courses
Online courses ... mostly offered by elite universities ... free ... enrollment in thousands ... usually offered through a consortium ... usually provide non-credit certificates upon successful completion
-- edX (non-profit) … founded by M.I.T. & Harvard; then UC Berkeley joined … followed by others
Coursera (for-profit, 62 colleges & universities on 3/17/13)
Udacity (for-profit)
-- MOOCs in Brief (HBCU Gateway, July 2012)
-- Video Introductions to cMOOCs for HBCUs (HBCU Gateway, August 2012)
--  What You Need to Know About MOOCs” (Chronicle, updated regularly) … timeline of major events in MOOC evolution
-- “EdX Rejected” (Ry Rivard, Inside Higher Ed, 4/19/13) … elite Amherst declined to join edX

B. Remediation

1. Flipped Courses in "emporiums"
"Emporiums" pioneered by Virginia Tech" = large open classroom with many workstations … topics presented to students at workstations via online videos … tutors roam classroom providing additional help to students when they ask for it
 -- "At Virginia Tech, computers help solve a math class problem" (Washington Post, 4/22/12) ... describes Virginia Tech's "emporium" … uses Pearson’s MyMath Lab courseware

--  The Math Emporium: Higher Education’s Silver Bullet” (Change, May-June 2011) ... places the "emporium" concept in a broader context”

2. Adaptive Learning Systems
 Online learning management systems (LMS) that deliver course materials to students that are customized to the student’s prior knowledge of a subject and the student’s learning style
-- Knewton’s LMS
-- Arizona State University uses Knewton for its remedial programs … Pearson now uses Knewton for its MyMath Lab remedial math courseware … used in flipped courses
-- “The New Intelligence” (Steve Kolowich, Inside Higher Ed, 1/25/13) … long, detailed report about Arizona State U’s initiatives
-- “
Intel on Adaptive Learning” (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 4/4/13) … Gates Foundation convenes group of adaptive learning activists … study =“Learning to Adapt
New Player in Adaptive Learning” (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 7/29/13) … American Intercontinental (for-profit)

C. Degree Completion

1.Competency-based credits
Students pass tests to prove knowledge of subjects acquired through self-study, tutoring, courses taken elsewhere, MOOCs

MOOC certificates (above) could serve as proof of competency???
-- Southern New Hampshire University
Western Governors University + partner states (Indiana, Missouri,
Tennessee, Texas, Washington)
-- Northern Arizona University
-- Capella University
-- “Competency Loves Company” (Steve Kolowich, Inside Higher Ed, 7/11/12)  … Northern Arizona State’s partnership with Pearson
-- “Beyond the Credit Hours” (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 3/19/13)
-- “Big Disruption, Big Questions” (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 4/17/13) … More pioneers
-- “Credit Without Teaching” (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 4/22/13) … detailed descriptions of Capella and Southern New Hampshire’s “College for America” programs
-- "Competent at What?" (Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, 12/12/13) ... Lumina Foundation sponsoring Competency Based Education Network (C-BEN)

2. Prior Learning
Students receive credit for learning acquired outside any formal classes, e.g., military service, work experience, home responsibilities
-- State University of NY (SUNY)
-- “SUNY Signals Major Push Towards MOOCs and Other Educational Models” (Steve Kolowich, Chronicle, 3/20/13)
-- “SUNY Board Outlines Implementation of Open SUNY” (SUNY press release, 3/20/13)

3. 10K-BA ($10,000 bachelors degree)
 … 5K-AA ($5,000 associates degree)
Credits granted via
-- Competency-based credits
-- Prior learning
-- Online courses
 -- Southern New Hampshire University’s College for America
--  The $10,000 Degree” (Katrina Trinko, National Review, 12/13/12)
-- “A $10,000 Degree“(Kevin Kiley, Inside Higher Ed, 11/30/12)

D. Academic Analytics
 Using “Big Data” (from operations, social media, etc) and statistical analysis to determine which policies work best for recruitment, retention, advising on course selection, etc è an emerging paradigm for institutional research

1. Dashboards
 Arizona State University (ASU)
 -- ASU’s dashboard Homepage  … Click the large “Request Access” button è some dashboards are accessible to the public; others require login
-- “Designing Dashboards(Wayne Eckerson, 2009)

 2. eAdvising
 Computer-based systems that supplement faculty advisors by offering suggested course selections based on students’ interests, graduation requirements, and previous performance
 Arizona State University (ASU)
 -- “College Degrees, Designed by the Numbers” (Marc Parry, Chronicle, 7/18/12) … extensive review of wide range of ASU’s disruptive innovations, not just eAdvising

3. Overview of Academic Analytics 
 EDUCAUSE has made academic analytics a major focus
Exemplars cited in EDUCAUSE reports
 -- Extensive references found in the EDUCAUSE Library
Related Notes: